There are 196 countries in the world at present and with increasing globalization and ease of movement, it has become relatively easier for people and cargo to move from one country to another. Although this ease of movement is proving to be a boon to people and the economy in general for most countries, there is also a flip side to it. Smugglers, criminals and mischief makers in general are also utilizing this ease in crossing international borders for their benefit. This raises the crucial aspect of having stringent border security measures in place to check for all kinds of illegal movement of people and goods across the international border between two countries.
A little bit of research would tell us that a majority of countries did not opt for border control till the World War 1, but post it an increasing number of countries started putting up stricter security measures and rightly so. The increase in international border disputes because of encroachment of international border by one country; as can be seen in the case of India and Pakistan, territorial disputes between Nicaragua and Costa Rica, Thailand and Cambodia or even Croatia and Slovenia amongst many other countries; coupled with illegal migration and transportation of people and goods across the international border between countries re-enforces the need for countries opting for state of the art security measures.
Almost all the countries around the world are taking measures to make their international borders more non-porous. The security forces, which may be called by different names in different countries, control movement of people between two countries by overseeing both legal and illegal immigration. In most countries around the word, people involved in security also act as customs officers and are entitled to collect the excise duty on goods and cargo being transported into their country. Apart from the above mentioned duties, their job also involves preventing the entry of illegal or hazardous material and smuggling of weapons, drugs and endangered species of animals or birds.
The forces responsible for ensuring security of a country are highly trained in different aspects and make use of different methods such as by adequate and indiscreet surveillance, acting on electronic sensor alarms and aircraft sightings, following up leads and interpreting and following tracks. Most security forces also make use of night vision sensors and video monitors to keep track of any illegal activities on their border. In case an intrusion by a foreign person is confirmed, it becomes the job of the Security force posted in that particular area to trace the foreign element by conduction thorough check of the nearby villages and towns. They are even required to inform the respective law enforcement agencies, Customs and Police authorities in such a scenario.
The work of people involved with securing the border of a country is not an easy one in a majority of countries, as the security forces act on rough terrains including harsh deserts, icy cold climates and others but still do their best to maintain peace and tranquility in their country.